Acetic acid glacial Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Acetic acid is a colourless liquid or crystal with a sour, vinegar-like odour and is one of the
simplest carboxylic acids and is an extensively used chemical reagent. Acetic acid has wide
application as a laboratory reagent, in the production of cellulose acetate mainly for photographic
film and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, synthetic fibres, and fabric materials. Acetic
acid has also been of large use as a descaling agent and acidity regulator in food industries.
Description: Acetic acid is a colorless liquid or crystals with a sour, vinegar-like odor. Pure compound is a solid below 17 C. Often used in an aqueous solution. Glacial acetic acid contains 99% acid.
Clear colorless liquid
Glacial acetic acid occurs as a crystalline mass or a clear, colorless
volatile solution with a pungent odor.
Glacial Acetic Acid is an acidulant that is a clear, colorless liquid which has an acid taste when diluted with water. It is 99.5% or higher in purity and crystallizes at 17°c. It is used in salad dressings in a diluted form to provide the required acetic acid. It is used as a preservative, acidulant, and flavoring agent. It is also termed acetic acid, glacial.
Acetic acid is used as table vinegar, as preservative and as an intermediate in the chemical industry, e.g. acetate fibers, acetates, acetonitrile, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, softening agents, dyes (indigo) etc. Product Data Sheet
It is used in aqueous and non-aqueous acid-base titrations.
manufacture of various acetates, acetyl compounds, cellulose acetate, acetate rayon, plastics and rubber in tanning; as laundry sour; printing calico and dyeing silk; as acidulant and preservative in foods; solvent for gums, resins, volatile oils and many other substances. Widely used in commercial organic syntheses. Pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).
ChEBI: A simple monocarboxylic acid containing two carbons.
Acetic acid is usually made by one of three routes: acetaldehyde
oxidation, involving direct air or oxygen oxidation of liquid
acetaldehyde in the presence of manganese acetate, cobalt acetate,
or copper acetate; liquid-phase oxidation of butane or naphtha;
methanol carbonylation using a variety of techniques.
A colorless aqueous solution. Smells like vinegar. Density 8.8 lb / gal. Corrosive to metals and tissue.
Air & Water Reactions
Dilution with water releases some heat.
ACETIC ACID, [AQUEOUS SOLUTION] reacts exothermically with chemical bases. Subject to oxidation (with heating) by strong oxidizing agents. Dissolution in water moderates the chemical reactivity of acetic acid, A 5% solution of acetic acid is ordinary vinegar. Acetic acid forms explosive mixtures with p-xylene and air (Shraer, B.I. 1970. Khim. Prom. 46(10):747-750.).
Corrosive; exposure of small amounts can
severely erode the lining of the gastrointestinal
tract; may cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody feces
and urine; cardiovascular failure and death.
Corrosive to the skin and eyes; vapor or mist is very irritating and can be destructive to the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory system; ingestion causes internal irritation and severe injury.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Acetic acid is a combustible substance (NFPA rating = 2). Heating can release vapors that can be ignited. Vapors or gases may travel considerable distances to ignition source and "flash back." Acetic acid vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4 to 16% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acetic acid fires.
Herbicide, Fungicide, Microbiocide; Metabolite,
Veterinary Medicine: A herbicide used to control grasses, woody plants
and broad-leaf weeds on hard surface and in areas where
crops are not normally grown; as a veterinary medicine.
Glacial and diluted acetic acid solutions are widely used as
acidifying agents in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations and
food preparations. Acetic acid is used in pharmaceutical products as
a buffer system when combined with an acetate salt such as sodium
acetate. Acetic acid is also claimed to have some antibacterial and
ACETUM®; ACI-JEL®; ECOCLEAR®;
NATURAL WEED SPRAY® No. One; VOSOL®
A human poison by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic by various routes. A severe eye and skin irritant. Can cause burns, lachrymation, and conjunctivitis. Human systemic effects by ingestion: changes in the esophagus, ulceration, or bleeding from the small and large intestines. Human systemic irritant effects and mucous membrane irritant. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. A common air contaminant. A flammable liquid. A fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical, alcohol foam, foam and mist. When heated to decomposition it emits irritating fumes. Potentially explosive reaction with 5azidotetrazole, bromine pentafluoride, chromium trioxide, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium peroxide, and phosphorus trichloride. Potentially violent reactions with acetaldehyde and acetic anhydride. Ignites on contact with potassium tert-butoxide. Incompatible with chromic acid, nitric acid, 2-amino-ethanol, NH4NO3, ClF3, chlorosulfonic acid, (O3 + diallyl methyl carbinol), ethplenediamine, ethylene imine, (HNO3 + acetone), oleum, HClO4, permanganates, P(OCN)3, KOH, NaOH, xylene
Acetic acid is widely used in pharmaceutical applications primarily
to adjust the pH of formulations and is thus generally regarded as
relatively nontoxic and nonirritant. However, glacial acetic acid or
solutions containing over 50% w/w acetic acid in water or organic
solvents are considered corrosive and can cause damage to skin,
eyes, nose, and mouth. If swallowed glacial acetic acid causes severe
gastric irritation similar to that caused by hydrochloric acid.
Dilute acetic acid solutions containing up to 10% w/w of acetic
acid have been used topically following jellyfish stings.Dilute
acetic acid solutions containing up to 5% w/w of acetic acid have
also been applied topically to treat wounds and burns infected with
The lowest lethal oral dose of glacial acetic acid in humans is
reported to be 1470 mg/kg.The lowest lethal concentration on
inhalation in humans is reported to be 816 ppm.Humans, are,
however, estimated to consume approximately 1 g/day of acetic acid
from the diet.
(mouse, IV): 0.525 g/kg
(rabbit, skin): 1.06 g/kg
(rat, oral): 3.31 g/kg
Acetic acid is widely used as a chemical feedstock for the production of vinyl plastics, acetic anhydride, acetone, acetanilide, acetyl chloride, ethyl alcohol, ketene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetate esters, and cellulose acetates. It is also used alone in the dye, rubber, pharmaceutical, food preserving, textile, and laundry industries. It is utilized, too; in the manufacture of Paris green, white lead, tint rinse, photographic chemicals, stain removers, insecticides, and plastics.
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 30 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing, and wash with soap immediately. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water or milk. Do not induce vomiting. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. If swallowed, do not induce vomiting. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. Medical observation recommended for 24 to 48 hours following inhalation overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed.
Acetic acid should be used only in areas free
of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly
sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.
Acetic acid should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry
UN2789 Acetic acid, glacial or Acetic acid solution, with .80 % acid, by mass, hazard class: 8; labels: 8-Corrosive material, 3-flammable liquid. UN2790 acetic acid solution, not ,50% but not .80% acid, by mass, hazard class: 8; labels: 8-Corrosive material; acetic acid solution, with .10% and ,50%, by mass, hazard class: 8; labels: 8-Corrosive material
Usual impurities are traces of acetaldehyde and other oxidisable substances and water. (Glacial acetic acid is very hygroscopic. The presence of 0.1% water lowers its m by 0.2o.) Purify it by adding some acetic anhydride to react with water present, heat it for 1hour to just below boiling in the presence of 2g CrO3 per 100mL and then fractionally distil it [Orton & Bradfield J Chem Soc 960 1924, Orton & Bradfield J Chem Soc 983 1927]. Instead of CrO3, use 2-5% (w/w) of KMnO4, and boil under reflux for 2-6hours. Traces of water have been removed by refluxing with tetraacetyl diborate (prepared by warming 1 part of boric acid with 5 parts (w/w) of acetic anhydride at 60o, cooling, and filtering off, followed by distillation [Eichelberger & La Mer J Am Chem Soc 55 3633 1933]. Refluxing with acetic anhydride in the presence of 0.2g % of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid as catalyst has also been used [Orton & Bradfield J Chem Soc 983 1927]. Other suitable drying agents include anhydrous CuSO4 and chromium triacetate: P2O5 converts some acetic acid to the anhydride. Azeotropic removal of water by distillation with thiophene-free *benzene or with butyl acetate has been used [Birdwhistell & Griswold J Am Chem Soc 77 873 1955]. An alternative purification uses fractional freezing. [Beilstein 2 H 96, 2 IV 94.] Rapid procedure: Add 5% acetic anhydride, and 2% of CrO3. Reflux and fractionally distil.
Vapor may form explosive mixture with air. Violent reaction with oxidizers, organic amines, and bases, such as hydroxides and carbonates. Incompatible with strong acids; aliphatic amines; alkanolamines, isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin, acetaldehyde, 2-aminoethanol, ammonia, ammonium nitrate, chlorosulfonic acid, chromic acid; ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, halides, peroxides, perchlorates, perchloric acid, permanganates, phosphorus isocyanate, phosphorus trichloride, potassium tert-butoxide, and xylene. Attacks cast iron, stainless steel; and other metals forming flammable/explosive hydrogen gas. Will attack many forms of rubber or plastic.
Flammability and Explosibility
Acetic acid is a combustible substance (NFPA rating = 2). Heating can release
vapors that can be ignited. Vapors or gases may travel considerable distances to
ignition source and "flash back." Acetic acid vapor forms explosive mixtures with
air at concentrations of 4 to 16% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical
extinguishers should be used for acetic acid fires.
Acetic acid reacts with alkaline substances.
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed
GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the
FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (injections, nasal, ophthalmic,
and oral preparations). Included in parenteral and nonparenteral
preparations licensed in the UK.
Acetic acid glacial Preparation Products And Raw materials
Hydroxy silicone oil emulsion
Dye-fixing agent G
Cellulose diacetate plastifier